Aerodynamics

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What is Mach Number?

What is Mach number? Mach number (MN) is a true airspeed indication, given as a percentage relative to the local speed of sound; e.g., half the speed of sound = 0.5 Mach. What is the…


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Speed

Speed stability Speed stability is the behavior of the speed after a disturbance at a fixed power setting. The behavior of an aircraft’s speed after it has been disturbed is a consequence of the drag…


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What is Swept Wing ?

In designing a high-speed wing, you need to consider first the requirement for economical high-speed performance in the cruise configuration. However, you also have to consider the restraints on the design of the need to…


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Weight and Aircraft Momentum

What limits an aircraft’s structural weight? The main force generated to balance the aircraft’s gross weight is the lift force, and if the lift cannot equal the aircraft’s weight, then the aircraft cannot maintain level…


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Wing tip vortices

Wing-tip vortices are created by span-wise airflow over the upper and lower surfaces of a wing/aerofoil that meet at the wing tips as turbulence and therefore induces drag, especially on a swept wing. Span-wise airflow…


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Drag

What is drag? Drag is the resistance to motion of an object (aircraft) through the air. Deline the two major types ol drag and their speed relationship. Profile and induced drag = total drag Profile…


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What is Lift ?

Lift What is lift? Lift is the phenomenon generated by an aerofoil due to pressure differences above and below the aerofoil. Note: An aerofoil is cambered on its topside and flat on its bottom side….


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Forces/Aerofoil

What are the forces acting on an aircraft in flight? Drag, thrust, lift, and weight. When thrust and drag are in equilibrium, an aircraft will maintain a steady speed. For an aircraft to accelerate, thrust…


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What is bypass ratio?

Bypass ratio in an early single- or twin-spool bypass engine is the ratio of the cool air mass flow passed through the bypass duct to the air mass flow passed through the high-pressure system. Typically,…