The Right of Way

With two aircraft converging in the air, which one must give way, and how?

When two aircraft are converging, i.e., at a constant relative bearing at the same altitude, the aircraft that has the other on its right must give way by turning right and passing behind the opposing aircraft. An aircraft in the air must give way to other converging aircraft regardless of position as follows:

1. Powered aircraft must give way to those towing objects such as banners.

2. Flying machines must give way to airships, gliders, and balloons.

3. Airships must give way to gliders and balloons.

4. Gliders must give way to balloons.

What actions should be taken if you are approaching head on with another aircraft at the same altitude?

When two aircraft are approximately approaching head on at the same altitude, there is a definite danger of a collision. Therefore, both aircraft must turn right to avoid collision.

How would you overtake (in the air) another aircraft at the same altitude and direction of flight?

Whether climbing, descending, or in level flight, an aircraft overtaking another aircraft must turn right and keep right of the other aircraft during the overtaking maneuver.

Who has the right of way during an airborne overtaking maneuver?

The aircraft being overtaken in the air has the right of way.

Who has the right of way on the ground?

The right of way on the ground is as follows:

1. Regardless of air traffic control (ATC) clearance, it is the duty of the aircraft commander to do all that is possible to avoid a collision with other aircraft or vehicles on the ground.

2. Aircraft on the ground must give way to those taking off or landing and to any vehicle towing an aircraft.

3. When two aircraft are approaching head on, each must turn right to avoid the other.

4. When two aircraft are converging, the one that has the other on its right must give way either by stopping or turning to pass behind the other. Avoid crossing in front of the other unless passing well clear.

5. An aircraft that is being overtaken by another has the right of way, and the overtaking aircraft must keep out of the way by turning left until past and well clear.

Note: This enables the commander of the overtaken aircraft (who has the right of way) to have an unrestricted view of the overtaking aircraft.

What is the order of priority for all vehicles on an aerodrome?

The priority for all vehicles on an aerodrome is as follows:

1. Aircraft landing

2. Aircraft taking off

3. Vehicles towing aircraft

4. Aircraft taxiing

5. Other vehicles

Who has the right of way between a landing aircraft and an aircraft on the ground?

An aircraft landing or on final approach and cleared to land has the right of way over other aircraft in flight or on the ground.

Note: In the case of two or more aircraft approaching to land, the lower aircraft has the right of way, except when the commander of the lower aircraft is aware that another aircraft is making an emergency landing. Then he or she must give way, and at night, even if he or she has already been cleared to land, he or she must not attempt to land until given further permission from air traffic control (ATC).

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